The "Uganda-UCSF Consortium on Prevention and Early Detection of HIV-associated Cancer" will address two related problems in the field of HIV-associated malignancies. The first is the lack of primary prevention for the two most common cancers in Uganda - Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and cervical cancer. The second is a paucity of well-trained Ugandan principal investigators. To address these, faculty from the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) in Uganda and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) will: Aim 1. Strengthen the existing collaboration between UCSF and the IDI by creating a consortium focused on career development and the performance of research related to the prevention and early detection of infection-related HIV-associated malignancies. The overall organization of the Uganda- UCSF Consortium will be managed by an Administrative/Coordinating Core. Aim 2. Bolster the overall environment for career development In clinical and translational research at the IDI and provide specifically for the support of 3 emerging Ugandan principal investigators focused on research related to the prevention and early detection of infection-related HIV-associated cancer. This environment will be directed by a Mentoring/Career Development Core, and it will be modeled after an NIH institutional mentored research career development ("K Award") program. Aim 3. Conduct novel research - led by our 3 emerging Ugandan principal investigators - related to the prevention and early detection of infection-related HIV-associated malignancies. The Consortium will conduct 3 Research Projects: Project 1. Promoting Early Diagnosis of Kaposi's Sarcoma in Uganda. Project 2. Prevention of Cervical Cancer Through Self-administered Screening in the Community. Project 3. Why Do Patients Develop KS Despite ART and What is Their Outcome? These research projects will be supported by a Data Management and Biostatistical Analysis Core. At the end of the 5-year period, the Uganda-UCSF Consortium will have strengthened the IDI as a center of excellence for the career development of sophisticated African principal investigators and will have conducted research yielding clinically relevant results that will ultimately reduce the burden of KS and cervical cancer not only in Uganda but also throughout sub-Saharan Africa.